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Surgical Conditions

  • A cutaneous histiocytoma is a common benign (harmless) tumor of the skin in dogs, typically younger ones. Their development, appearance, diagnosis, and treatment are explained in this handout.

  • Cuterebra is the scientific name for the North American rabbit or rodent botfly. Cats are accidental hosts of Cuterebra larvae, and they are rarely evident from external skin inspection. A hole enlarges when the warble has matured, often leading to an infected empty cyst. Treatment depends on when the condition is discovered, and in many cases, antibiotics are used to treat secondary infections.

  • Cystine bladder stones appear to be the result of a genetic abnormality that prevents a dog from reabsorbing cystine from the kidneys. While bladder stones in general are somewhat common in dogs, cystine bladder stones are rare. Your veterinarian may be able to palpate the stones or may need to perform imaging studies such as a bladder ultrasound or a contrast radiographic study. There are two primary treatment strategies for treating cystine bladder stones in dogs: urohydropropulsion or surgical removal. Dogs that have developed cystine bladder stones in the past will often be fed a therapeutic diet for life. Unfortunately, cystine stones have a high rate of recurrence, despite careful attention to diet and lifestyle.

  • This handout describes and illustrates this condition, and discusses the causes, clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment options for degenerative disc disease in dogs. Surgical intervention is specifically outlined and rule-outs for other conditions causing similar signs are also discussed.

  • Dental disease is one of the most common medical conditions seen by veterinarians. This handout discusses the signs and diagnosis of this serious oral condition in cats. A variety of dental disease conditions and their treatment are explained.

  • The diaphragm is the muscular partition that separates the abdomen and the chest. Tearing or disruption of this thin muscle is called a diaphragmatic hernia or diaphragmatic rupture. The most common cause of diaphragmatic hernia is blunt force trauma. Clinical signs are dependent on the severity of herniation. There is often respiratory distress, an abnormal heart rhythm, muffled heart and lung sounds, and other signs of systemic shock. The abdomen may feel empty when palpated. Once the patient is stable, the hernia must be corrected surgically.

  • The diaphragm is the muscular partition that separates the abdomen and the chest. Tearing or disruption of this thin muscle is called a diaphragmatic hernia or diaphragmatic rupture. The most common cause of diaphragmatic hernia is blunt force trauma. Clinical signs depend on the severity of herniation. There is often respiratory distress, an abnormal heart rhythm, muffled heart and lung sounds, and other signs of systemic shock. The abdomen may feel empty when palpated. Once the patient is stable, the hernia must be corrected surgically.

  • Common conditions of pet ferrets include diarrhea, intestinal foreign bodies, parasites, heart disease, and various tumors. This handout outlines the causes, clinical signs, and treatment options for each of these conditions. Any variation from normal should be a cause for concern and should be immediately evaluated by your veterinarian.

  • Common conditions of pet rodents include respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal problems, dental problems, and tumors. Signs of respiratory disease in rodents include nasal and/or ocular discharge in mild infections, and wheezing, coughing, and open-mouth breathing in severe infections. Gastrointestinal disease, including diarrhea from various causes and gastrointestinal stasis is common in pet rodents. All rodents have teeth that grow continuously throughout their lives. Occasionally, these teeth grow too long and cut into the gums, causing pain, or prevent the mouth from closing properly, which often makes the pet stop eating. Just as in people, cancer is often seen in pet rodents, especially mammary (breast) tumors in rats and mice. Rodents with signs of respiratory or GI disease or evidence of a tumor should be seen by a veterinarian who can properly diagnose and treat the underlying condition.

  • Distichiae can be an irritating eye problem for many dogs. The abnormally growing extra eyelashes can cause chronic discomfort to the eye and potential vision problems. A thorough eye examination, including fluorescein staining of the cornea and an assessment of the degree of tear production in the eyes, is usually necessary to assess the extent of any accompanying corneal injury and to rule out other causes of the dog's clinical signs. Various treatment options are available in order to help dogs live a more comfortable life. The prognosis is excellent for those dogs that do not show any clinical signs associated with their distichiae. For dogs with mild clinical signs, the likelihood that the condition can be managed with conservative treatment is good.